Plato and same-sex sexuality
There are no actual writings from Socrates. Most accounts of the philosopher are taken from the writings of his student Plato. The main concept. Socrates was Plato's teacher, Aristotle learned at Plato's Academy, and The Student-Teacher Relationship of Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, and. Learn more about how these two key philosophers were related and how their teachings differed. So how exactly does Plato's philosophy differ from Aristotle's? . Indeed, the character Socrates there develops a theory of political justice as.
Plato and Aristotle: How Do They Differ?
The most fundamental difference between Plato and Aristotle concerns their theories of forms. The term is lowercased when used to refer to forms as Aristotle conceived them. For Plato, the Forms are perfect exemplars, or ideal types, of the properties and kinds that are found in the world. Corresponding to every such property or kind is a Form that is its perfect exemplar or ideal type. A thing is a beautiful black horse because it participates in the Beautiful, the Black, and the Horse; a thing is a large red triangle because it participates in the Large, the Red, and the Triangle; a person is courageous and generous because he or she participates in the Forms of Courage and Generosity; and so on.
For Plato, Forms are abstract objectsexisting completely outside space and time. Thus they are knowable only through the mind, not through sense experience. Moreover, because they are changeless, the Forms possess a higher degree of reality than do things in the world, which are changeable and always coming into or going out of existence.
For Aristotle, forms do not exist independently of things—every form is the form of some thing.
Substantial and accidental forms are not created, but neither are they eternal. They are introduced into a thing when it is made, or they may be acquired later, as in the case of some accidental forms.
For both Plato and Aristotle, as for most ancient ethicists, the central problem of ethics was the achievement of happiness. The means by which happiness was acquired was through virtue. Thus ancient ethicists typically addressed themselves to three related questions: Later, Plato is mentioned along with Crito, Critobolus, and Apollodorus as offering to pay a fine of 30 minas on Socrates' behalf, in lieu of the death penalty proposed by Meletus 38b.
In the Phaedothe title character lists those who were in attendance at the prison on Socrates' last day, explaining Plato's absence by saying, "Plato was ill". Phaedo 59b Plato never speaks in his own voice in his dialogues. In the Second Letterit says, "no writing of Plato exists or ever will exist, but those now said to be his are those of a Socrates become beautiful and new" c ; if the Letter is Plato's, the final qualification seems to call into question the dialogues' historical fidelity.
- Socrates, Plato and Aristotle
- Philosophy: Socrates, Plato and Aristotle
In any case, Xenophon and Aristophanes seem to present a somewhat different portrait of Socrates from the one Plato paints. Some have called attention to the problem of taking Plato's Socrates to be his mouthpiece, given Socrates' reputation for irony and the dramatic nature of the dialogue form.
Aristotle suggests that Socrates' idea of forms can be discovered through investigation of the natural world, unlike Plato's Forms that exist beyond and outside the ordinary range of human understanding. Plato's use of myth Mythos and logos are terms that evolved along classical Greece history. In the times of Homer and Hesiod 8th century BC they were quite synonyms, and contained the meaning of tale or history. Later came historians like Herodotus and Thucydides, as well as philosophers as Parmenides and other Presocratics that introduced a distinction between both terms, and mythos became more a nonverifiable account, and logos a rational account.
Instead he made an abundant use of it. This fact has produced analytical and interpretative work, in order to clarify the reasons and purposes for that use. Plato, in general, distinguished between three types of myth. Then came the myths based on true reasoning, and therefore also true. Finally there were those non verifiable because beyond of human reason, but containing some truth in them. Regarding the subjects of Plato's myths they are of two types, those dealing with the origin of the universe, and those about morals and the origin and fate of the soul.
He considered that only a few people were capable or interested in following a reasoned philosophical discourse, but men in general are attracted by stories and tales. Consequently, then, he used the myth to convey the conclusions of the philosophical reasoning. Some of Plato's myths were based in traditional ones, others were modifications of them, and finally he also invented altogether new myths.
The Big Three of Greek Philosophy: Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle.
Aristotle gestures to the earth, representing his belief in knowledge through empirical observation and experience, while holding a copy of his Nicomachean Ethics in his hand.
Plato holds his Timaeus and gestures to the heavens, representing his belief in The Forms. Recurrent themes Plato often discusses the father-son relationship and the question of whether a father's interest in his sons has much to do with how well his sons turn out. In ancient Athens, a boy was socially located by his family identity, and Plato often refers to his characters in terms of their paternal and fraternal relationships. Socrates was not a family man, and saw himself as the son of his mother, who was apparently a midwife.
Philosophy: Socrates, Plato and Aristotle (video) | Khan Academy
A divine fatalist, Socrates mocks men who spent exorbitant fees on tutors and trainers for their sons, and repeatedly ventures the idea that good character is a gift from the gods. Plato's dialogue Crito reminds Socrates that orphans are at the mercy of chance, but Socrates is unconcerned. In the Theaetetus, he is found recruiting as a disciple a young man whose inheritance has been squandered. Socrates twice compares the relationship of the older man and his boy lover to the father-son relationship Lysis a, Republic 3.
In several of Plato's dialogues, Socrates promulgates the idea that knowledge is a matter of recollection, and not of learning, observation, or study. Socrates is often found arguing that knowledge is not empirical, and that it comes from divine insight. In many middle period dialogues, such as the Phaedo, Republic and Phaedrus Plato advocates a belief in the immortality of the soul, and several dialogues end with long speeches imagining the afterlife.
More than one dialogue contrasts knowledge and opinion, perception and realitynature and custom, and body and soul. Several dialogues tackle questions about art: Socrates says that poetry is inspired by the musesand is not rational. He speaks approvingly of this, and other forms of divine madness drunkenness, eroticism, and dreaming in the Phaedrus a—cand yet in the Republic wants to outlaw Homer's great poetry, and laughter as well.
In IonSocrates gives no hint of the disapproval of Homer that he expresses in the Republic. The dialogue Ion suggests that Homer 's Iliad functioned in the ancient Greek world as the Bible does today in the modern Christian world: Socrates and his company of disputants had something to say on many subjects, including politics and art, religion and science, justice and medicine, virtue and vice, crime and punishment, pleasure and pain, rhetoric and rhapsody, human nature and sexuality, as well as love and wisdom.
Platonic realism "Platonism" is a term coined by scholars to refer to the intellectual consequences of denying, as Plato's Socrates often does, the reality of the material world. In several dialogues, most notably the Republic, Socrates inverts the common man's intuition about what is knowable and what is real.
While most people take the objects of their senses to be real if anything is, Socrates is contemptuous of people who think that something has to be graspable in the hands to be real. In other words, such people live without the divine inspiration that gives him, and people like him, access to higher insights about reality. Some debate is held as to whether Plato actually meant that there are two separate worlds, one of forms and one of particular things, or whether it is all part of one world in which the abstract forms exist eternally and particular thing finitely.
For example formulas gained from studying geometry are abstract and always true in nature but the actual shapes in nature only participate in a likeness of such a formula.
Forms as Cause[ edit ] Plato suggests that the cause of all particular things in the perceived world are the ideas or forms. This is due to the need of particular things to participate in something abstract that is in perfect being. The existence of the forms themselves is due to the fact that they are perfect and good in themselves. As the worst thing for a perfect existence is its non-existence it must exist always out of necessity. Hence there is always something rather than nothing and no thing can be caused by nothing what so ever.
Plato's Influences[ edit ] Plato was influenced by two accounts of nature that are seemingly apposed. The one, Hericlitus, suggested that everything in the world is in a constant state of flux, that is always in motion and ever changing. Thus no one can stand in the same river twice. In contrast Parmenides has an account of nature suggests nothing is in movement, the world we perceive is an illusion of movement. Plato's abstract forms constitute a state where nothing is in movement, whilst at the same time the things participating in them are in flux out of necessity.
Aristotle's Epistemology[ edit ] Aristotle was a pupil of Plato's academy. Upon not becoming the head teacher of the school after Plato's death he set up his own school of thought that differed in its way of thinking. Aristotle was an epistemologist believing that the truth of objects in the world was to be found in objects themselves, not in their separate abstract form as Plato has suggested.
This claim can be seen as follows; Socrates never thinks without an image present to him. All truth is present within objects in the world. Thus any truth of the objects must be contained in the images Socrates has present to him.
The study of metaphysics, the study of being qua being, Qua meaning the capacity or role of an item or first philosophy reveils truths to us present in the objects. Aristotle's Rejection of the Platonic forms- The Third Man Argument[ edit ] Aristotle formalizes in his 'Metaphysics' a rejection of Plato's theory of the forms known as the Third Man Argument, although it is found in one of Plato's own works 'Parmenides'.
It is as follows: If they are the same then Socrates is equivalent to the form man and nothing is added to the argument by the form.