What We Can Learn From Saladin | HuffPost
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And thirty-one governors have said that Syrian refugees are not welcome in their states. This virulent discourse has contributed to an increase in hate crimes against Muslims and their places of worship across the country.
What We Can Learn From Saladin
Saladin's levelheaded actions extend to the battlefield and exemplify how the West should respond to ISIS in a complex Syrian context. Saladin fulfilled his vow to execute Raymond as punishment for his slaughter of Muslim emissaries and pilgrims, during a period of truce between the Muslims and Crusaders.
King Guy feared for his life after witnessing the execution, but Saladin spared his life saying" However, we must not punish those who are not responsible. Can we not find the humanity within ourselves to differentiate between orphans and terrorists, widows and barbarians? Saladin is known for having a greater interest in Islamic studies than military training, and the Islamic principles of warfare are reflected in his actions on the battlefield.
Yet, some scholars in the West quote the Quran out of context to argue that Islam is an inherently violent religion. These are the same decontextualized quotes the terrorists use to justify their actions. The Islamic tradition is a rich one that spans over years of practice in regions around the world. It includes a complex legal system with few black and white answers. The great scholars of Islam, like Imam al-Ghazali and Ibn Khaldun, did not open the Quran and declare, "Well, it says fight the disbeliever; go ahead and kill.
It was this Islam that informed Saladin's actions. He was an absentee landlord, only concerned with the rents England yielded to fund his personal wars of dynastic consolidation and self-aggrandizement.
His second visit was inafter he had finished crusading, and England had helped raise the eye-wateringmarks ransom for his release from imperial captivity. When two months of dutiful plodding around England were up, Richard promptly took the first boat he could find back to the battlefields of France.
England was, he said, cold and always raining, and it plainly held nothing for him — which is hardly surprising, as he was a thoroughbred Frenchman.
Yet although queen-consort of England, she was most definitely southern French.
For Richard, who was never destined to ascend the English throne, everything north of the White Cliffs was secondary. There is no evidence he ever showed any interest in English. The simple reality is that Richard was duke, count, or lord of a breathtaking array of fiefs all over France. But what he and his poisonous brothers all really wanted was a crown — a VIP pass into a far more exclusive club. It was a means to an end, and that was the extent of his interest.
So was Bishop Stubbs right to say he was no Englishman? Many would find it difficult to disagree. But he did not show anything like the same loyalty to his father, Henry II. Henry took the job of nursing a war-torn and fractured England back to health very seriously. Twenty years before his accession, Stephen of Blois had usurped the throne and unleashed a vicious civil war that left England burning for two decades.
All their ingratitude, plotting, and treachery eventually wearied Henry into an early grave. His record as a husband was likewise not spectacular.
Every day they ate from one table and one bowl, and by night the bed did not separate them. The king of France loved him as his own soul, and they loved each other so much that the king of England i. A minority of historians believe this passage records no more than a ritual symbolic show of political harmony between the two great royal lords. In any case, four years later, a political union was struck between Richard and Berengaria of Navarre, and the couple married in Cyprus en route to the Crusades.
However, for whatever reason, Berengaria did not hang around for more than a few months, and soon headed back to France.
Cruel, Anti-English And Almost Certainly Gay: Meet The Real Richard The Lionheart - Dominic Selwood
But that is not the end of it. InRoger of Howden tells us that a hermit cautioned Richard to desist from certain same-sex acts, which he identifies clearly, and I do not need to. Despite the warning, Roger says Richard did not heed the words until a serious illness caused him to take his wife back again, although the marriage remained distant and childless to the end. So, no one would give Richard the award for husband of the year, either.
All that said, Richard did impress people with a range of virtues that were widely and deeply admired. In a violent age, his battle skills, both as combatant and strategist, were truly exceptional. As, on occasion, was his devotion to his men. Like when he went after a foraging party that had stumbled into serious trouble.
He was also a skilled orator. When prisoner of the Holy Roman Emperor, he awed everyone with his eloquent defence against the charge of having paid the Ismaili Assassins in the Holy Land to murder his rival, Conrad of Montferrat. He was, in all likelihood, guilty of the charge. He knew some Latin, and Muslim sources say he had a keen interest in Arabic culture.
He was not a musician, but he loved music and wrote songs and poetry in Occitan and French. An Islamic chronicler summed him up as a man of wisdom, experience, courage, and energy. The difficulty is that these attributes are permanently besmirched by accounts of his increasing cruelty.The Third Crusade: Saladin & Richard the Lionheart Documentary
The most famous example occurred near Acre in the Holy Land. Richard and Saladin had been negotiating for months. Richard was to give Saladin back several thousand prisoners.
In return Saladin was to pay a ransom and yield up the True Cross, which he had captured in at the Horns of Hattin. The scholar with his back to a pillar and his students around him were sometimes moved to tears of appreciation by the elegance of his exposition.
Newby in his book, Saladin In His Time. The second minaret is called the Minaret of Jesus. Prophet Jesus, as Muslims believe, will be returning to earth and will start his call from this minaret.
Muslims and Christians together will then respond to his call.
Cruel, Anti-English And Almost Certainly Gay: Meet The Real Richard The Lionheart
The Mosque was originally east of St. Muslims and Christians for seventy years performed their rituals side by side, before the Mosque expansion during Caliph al-Walid ibn Abdul Malek, in John Baptist Church from the Christians in exchange for four other churches in the city.
Today, the tomb of John the Baptist stands in the center of the Umayyad Mosque along with the original baptismal well and stone-made pot. Saladin was fourteen years old when he got married. The devout Nur al-Din soon became a great mentor for the young Saladin. Sultan Nur al-Din, who succeeded his father, Zengi inrespected scholars and endured knowledge and turned Syria into a large intellectual center.
He built and funded schools and hospitals. In the presence of a scholar, the Sultan was known to rise to his feet as a sign of respect and invite him to sit next to him.
Nur al-Din lived austerely and had little money for himself. Of all the wealth I have at my disposal, I am but the custodian for the Muslims, and I do not intend to deceive them over this and cast myself into hell-fire for your sake.
Saladin regularly attended the Court of Appeals as a student and was associated with his master, Nur al-Din. In this court, Saladin learned to appreciate the wisdom and justice of the Islamic Law as it applied to the injustices and criminals. Nur al-Din was the first Muslim ruler who saw that the jihad against the invading Crusaders could only be successful if Muslim states were united and soon began implementing this unity.
Such was the man who, next to his own father, Saladin respected more than any others.
Inat the age of 26, he was an assistant to his uncle Shirkuh in an expedition to rescue Egypt from an invasion by Amalric, king of Jerusalem.
Saladin made a lasting impression on his peers during this expedition. They were able to escape the Crusader Castle of Kerak, which was precisely built to interrupt communication between Syria and Egypt and to attack Muslim merchants and pilgrim caravans. In Saladin with his uncle Shirkuh, was on another expedition to Egypt to defend it against yet another Crusader attack. This time he was a second-commander-in-chief of the Syrian army. Later, he was able to rule Cairo and defeat the Fatimid who ruled Egypt.
Egypt soon turned into an Ayyubid Dynasty. Among the local achievements, he boosted the Egyptian economy and improved education. He mobilized Egypt to face the Crusaders and built a great number of Islamic schools all over Egypt.
He also gave school administrators and teachers good salaries. These schools soon attracted many scholars from Asia and Europe. With so many scholars and schools, Egypt soon developed into a large intellectual center.
Saladin borrowed this idea from his father Ayyub and Nur al-Din, who had earlier turned Syria into a large intellectual center. When Ayyub was in Baalbek, he built a Sufi-convert establishment there.
He followed the standards of Sultan Zengi who had earlier built one in Musel. At the age of 45, Saladin was the most powerful figure in the Muslim world. When Nur ed-Din died inthe Syrian princes gave their allegiance to Saladin and Damascus became his home.
He rectified the wrongs, ordered the oppressor to recompense, and listened to his subjects with his own ears, without an intermediary. If there was a matter which he himself was a part of, he surrendered his place to the judge and sat at the side of the plaintiff.
If the judge ruled against him, he executed the order. Saladin used diplomacy and the administrative skills in piecing together this badly divided region.
Furthermore, he only appointed rulers whom he trusted and who shared his vision. Their appointment was primarily to ensure that his back was secured when he faced the Crusaders and that a continuous supply of food and assistance could not be interrupted. The power or wealth he acquired never spoiled him; in fact, power and position did not mean anything to him.
When he died, his wealth was only a few dinars. All the revenue he received, he channeled to his soldiers and emirs to ensure their loyalty to him. Saladin was a man of restless energy geared to serve his goal in driving the invaders out of his country. The Decisive Battle of Hittin In return for an attack made by the Crusaders of the Kerak on Muslim pilgrims inSaladin moved his army to northern Palestine and defeated the much larger Crusader army in the decisive battle of Hittin July 4, Three months after this battle, Saladin captured Jerusalem.
Unlike the Christians eighty eight years earlier, who made Jerusalem a bloodbath, Saladin did not loot, murder or seek revenge for the Muslims. He spared the lives ofChristians and allowed Christian pilgrims in Jerusalem after its fall. In this benevolent act, Saladin was simply emulating Prophet Muhammad as the Prophet re-entered his birth-city of Mecca. When Muhammad returned to Mecca with ten thousand people, he entered it without any bloodshed. He told its people with his famous words: This is indeed an example of nobility in forgiving when you are strong and able.
Forgiveness is also the teachings of Christianity. On the contrary, the Bible teaches: Love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you. In the end, the expedition failed to enter Jerusalem. It was during this period Richard negotiated peace with Saladin and gained a lasting respect for him. This was because Saladin was leveraged to make no peace treaty. His army was strong and in control, while the Third Crusade army was exhausted.
Furthermore, King Richard was determined to go back to his country. But if they the enemy incline towards peace, do you also incline towards peace. In his 28 years of battling the Crusaders, Saladin left many heart-touching impressions in the minds and hearts of his opponents as a reminder of his magnanimity.
The author selected few of these stories as follows in order to help the reader understand why Saladin became a legendary figure in the Western world.