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Firefighting is the act of attempting to prevent the spread of and extinguish significant unwanted To combat some of these risks, firefighters carry self- contained breathing Fires can be extinguished by water, fuel or oxidant removal, or chemical . They must meet minimum physical fitness standards and learn various. Modern Combat 5: eSports FPS. Gameloft .. The product developer believes this product meets accessibility requirements, making it easier for everyone to use. In such regions, the lack of adequate clean water to meet human drinking water and .. If we continue to follow a business‐as‐usual pathway it could lead to a habitats, reverse species extinctions and combat invasive species; Mapping . The treatment and final disposal of liquid and solid wastes are still.
No PPE, however, can completely protect the user from the effects of all possible fire conditions. Sufficient heat causes human flesh to burn as fuel, or the water within to boil, leading to potentially severe medical problems.
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Depending on the heat of the fire, burns can occur in a fraction of a second. Burn Additional risks of fire are the obscuring of vision due to smoke, potentially causing a fall or disorientation ; becoming trapped in a fire; and structural collapse. The conditions observed in healthy male firefighters are "also apparent found in weightlifters and endurance athletes An outdoor fire may not require reconnaissance, but a fire in a cellar or an underground car park with only a few centimeters of visibility may require long reconnaissance to identify the source of the fire.
The "reading" of a fire is the analysis by firefighters of indications of thermal events such as flashoverbackdraft or smoke explosion. It is performed during reconnaissance and fire suppression maneuvers.
The main signs are: Hot zones, which can be detected with a gloved hand, for example by touching a door before opening it; Soot on windows, which usually means that combustion is incomplete, and thus, a lack of air in the room; Smoke pulsing in and out around a door frame, as if the fire were breathing, which usually also means a lack of air to support combustion.
Spraying water on the ceiling in short pulses of a diffused spray e. If the temperature is moderate, the water falls down in drops with a sound like rain; if the temperature is high, the water vaporizes with a hiss—the sign of a potentially extremely dangerous impending flashover.
Ideally, part of reconnaissance is consulting a plan for the building that provides information about structures, firefighter hazards, and in some cases the most appropriate strategies and tactics for fighting a fire in that context. These are a reducing agent fuelheatan oxidizing agent oxygenand a chemical reaction.
A fire can be extinguished by taking away any of the four components. The most common fuels contain carbon along with combinations of hydrogen and oxygen. Heat is the energy component of a fire. When it comes into contact with a fuel, it provides the energy necessary for ignition, causes the continuous production and ignition of fuel vapors or gases so that the combustion reaction can continue, and causes the vaporization of solid and liquid fuels.
The resulting self-sustained chemical chain reaction is complex and requires fuel, an oxidizer, and heat energy to come together in a very specific way. An oxidizing agent is a material or substance that will release gases, including oxygen, when the proper conditions exist. It is crucial to the sustainment of a flame or fire. Using water is one common method to extinguish a fire. Without heat, the fuel cannot keep the oxidizer from reducing the fuel in order to sustain the fire.
Water also extinguishes a fire by smothering it. When water is heated to its boiling point, it converts to water vapor. When this conversion takes place, it dilutes the oxygen in the air above the fire, thus removing one of the elements that the fire requires to burn. This can also be done with foam. Another way to extinguish a fire is fuel removal. This can be accomplished by stopping the flow of liquid or gaseous fuel, by removing solid fuel in the path of a fire, or by allowing the fire to burn until all the fuel is consumed, at which point the fire will self-extinguish.
One final extinguishing method is chemical flame inhibition. This can be accomplished by applying dry chemical or halogenated agents that interrupt the chemical chain reaction and stop flaming. This method is effective on gas and liquid fuel because they must have flame to burn.
Sound waves have been successfully used in a device fabricated by two George Mason University senior engineering students, Viet Tran and Seth Robertson, but the procedure is still awaiting a patent One common way to extinguish a fire is to spray it with water. The water has two roles: This leaves the fire without enough of the combustive agent, and it dies out. Water extinguishment is thus a combination of "asphyxia" cutting off the oxygen supply and cooling. The flame itself is suppressed by asphyxia, but the cooling is the most important element in mastering a fire in a closed area.
Water may be accessed from a pressurized fire hydrantpumped from water sources such as lakes or rivers, delivered by tanker truckor dropped from water bomberswhich are aircraft adapted as tankers for fighting forest fires. An armored vehicle firefighting tank may be used where access to the area is difficult. Open air fire[ edit ] For outdoor fires, the seat of the fire is sprayed with a straight spray: A straight spray is used so the water arrives massively to the seat of the fire before it vaporizes.
A strong spray may also have a mechanical effect; it can disperse the combustible product and thus prevent the fire from starting again.
Spray is always aimed at a surface or an object. For this reason, the strategy is sometimes called a two-dimensional or 2D attack. An outdoor fire is always fed with air, and the risk to people is limited as they can move away from it, except in the case of wildfires or bushfires where they risk being easily surrounded by the flames. It might, however, be necessary to protect specific objects like houses or gas tanks against infrared radiation, and thus to use a diffused spray between the fire and the object.
Breathing apparatus is often required as there is still the risk of inhaling smoke or poisonous gases. Closed volume fire[ edit ] Iranian firefighters had to extinguish the fire at Bistoon Petrochemicals Powerhouse Until the s, fires were usually attacked while they declined, using the same strategy as for open air fires.
Now fires are attacked in their development phase because firefighters arrive sooner at the site of a fire and because of changes in building construction. The increasing use of thermal insulation confines the heat, and modern materials, especially polymersproduce much more heat than do traditional materials like woodplasterstoneand bricks.
Under these conditions, there is a greater risk of backdraft and flashover. Directly spraying the seat of the fire in enclosed areas can have unfortunate consequences: The most important issue is not combating the flames, but controlling the fire; for example, cooling the smoke so that it cannot spread and start fires further away, and endanger the lives of people, including the firefighters. Using Grimwood's modified 3D attack strategy, the ceiling is first sprayed with short pulses of a diffuse spray.
This cools the smoke which is then less likely to start a fire when it moves away. As gas cools it becomes denser Charles's law ; thus, it also reduces the mobility of the smoke and avoids a "backfire" of water vapor.
Also, the diffuse spray creates an inert "water vapor sky", which prevents "roll-over" rolls of flames on the ceiling created by hot burning gases. Only short pulses of water need to be sprayed, otherwise the spraying modifies the equilibrium, and the gases mix instead of remaining stratified: An alternative is to cool all the atmosphere by spraying the whole atmosphere as if drawing letters in the air "penciling".
Modern methods for extinguishing an urban fire dictate the use of a massive initial water flow, e. In addition, waterways have important roles for washing and cleaning, for fishing and fish farming, and for recreation. Another major source of drinking water is groundwater, which often has low concentrations of pathogens because the water is filtered during its transit through underground layers of sand, clay, or rocks.
However, toxic chemicals such as arsenic and fluoride can be dissolved from the soil or rock layers into groundwater. Direct contamination can also occur from badly designed hazardous waste sites or from industrial sites.
In the United States in the s, the government set in motion the Superfund Program, a major investigation and cleanup program to deal with such sites U.
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Environmental Protection Agency Coastal pollution of seawater may give rise to health hazards because of local contamination of fish or shellfish—for instance, the mercury contamination of fish in the infamous Minamata disease outbreak in Japan in WHO Seawater pollution with persistent chemicals, such as polychlorinated biphenyls PCBs and dioxins, can also be a significant health hazard even at extremely low concentrations Yassi and others Sources of Chemical Water Pollution Chemicals can enter waterways from a point source or a nonpoint source.
Point-source pollution is due to discharges from a single source, such as an industrial site. Nonpoint-source pollution involves many small sources that combine to cause significant pollution. For instance, the movement of rain or irrigation water over land picks up pollutants such as fertilizers, herbicides, and insecticides and carries them into rivers, lakes, reservoirs, coastal waters, or groundwater.
Another nonpoint source is storm-water that collects on roads and eventually reaches rivers or lakes. Paper and pulp mills consume large volumes of water and discharge liquid and solid waste products into the environment. The liquid waste is usually high in biological oxygen demand, suspended solids, and chlorinated organic compounds such as dioxins World Bank The storage and transport of the resulting solid waste wastewater treatment sludge, lime sludge, and ash may also contaminate surface waters.
Sugar mills are associated with effluent characterized by biological oxygen demand and suspended solids, and the effluent is high in ammonium content. In addition, the sugarcane rinse liquid may contain pesticide residues. Leather tanneries produce a significant amount of solid waste, including hide, hair, and sludge. The wastewater contains chromium, acids, sulfides, and chlorides.
Textile and dye industries emit a liquid effluent that contains toxic residues from the cleaning of equipment. Waste from petrochemical manufacturing plants contains suspended solids, oils and grease, phenols, and benzene.
Solid waste generated by petrochemical processes contains spent caustic and other hazardous chemicals implicated in cancer. Another major source of industrial water pollution is mining. The grinding of ores and the subsequent processing with water lead to discharges of fine silt with toxic metals into waterways unless proper precautions are taken, such as the use of sedimentation ponds.
Lead and zinc ores usually contain the much more toxic cadmium as a minor component. If the cadmium is not retrieved, major water pollution can occur. Mining was the source of most of the widespread cadmium poisoning Itai-Itai disease in Japan in —50 Kjellstrom Other metals, such as copper, nickel, and chromium, are essential micronutrients, but in high levels these metals can be harmful to health.
Wastewater from mines or stainless steel production can be a source of exposure to these metals. The presence of copper in water can also be due to corrosion of drinking water pipes. Soft water or low pH makes corrosion more likely. High levels of copper may make water appear bluish green and give it a metallic taste. Flushing the first water out of the tap can minimize exposure to copper.
The use of lead pipes and plumbing fixtures may result in high levels of lead in piped water. Mercury can enter waterways from mining and industrial premises. Incineration of medical waste containing broken medical equipment is a source of environmental contamination with mercury. Metallic mercury is also easily transported through the atmosphere because of its highly volatile nature. Sulfate-reducing bacteria and certain other micro-organisms in lake, river, or coastal underwater sediments can methylate mercury, increasing its toxicity.
Methylmercury accumulates and concentrates in the food chain and can lead to serious neurological disease or more subtle functional damage to the nervous system Murata and others Runoff from farmland, in addition to carrying soil and sediments that contribute to increased turbidity, also carries nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphates, which are often added in the form of animal manure or fertilizers.
These chemicals cause eutrophication excessive nutrient levels in waterwhich increases the growth of algae and plants in waterways, leading to an increase in cyanobacteria blue-green algae. The toxics released during their decay are harmful to humans. The use of nitrogen fertilizers can be a problem in areas where agriculture is becoming increasingly intensified.
These fertilizers increase the concentration of nitrates in groundwater, leading to high nitrate levels in underground drinking water sources, which can cause methemoglobinemia, the life-threatening "blue baby" syndrome, in very young children, which is a significant problem in parts of rural Eastern Europe Yassi and others Some pesticides are applied directly on soil to kill pests in the soil or on the ground.
This practice can create seepage to groundwater or runoff to surface waters. Some pesticides are applied to plants by spraying from a distance—even from airplanes. This practice can create spray drift when the wind carries the materials to nearby waterways. Efforts to reduce the use of the most toxic and long-lasting pesticides in industrial countries have largely been successful, but the rules for their use in developing countries may be more permissive, and the rules of application may not be known or enforced.
Hence, health risks from pesticide water pollution are higher in such countries WHO Naturally occurring toxic chemicals can also contaminate groundwater, such as the high metal concentrations in underground water sources in mining areas. The most extensive problem of this type is the arsenic contamination of groundwater in Argentina, Bangladesh box Fluoride is another substance that may occur naturally at high concentrations in parts of China, India, Sri Lanka, Africa, and the eastern Mediterranean.
Although fluoride helps prevent dental decay, exposure to levels greater than 1. Exposure to levels greater than 10 milligrams per liter can cause crippling skeletal fluorosis Smith The presence of arsenic in tube wells in Bangladesh because of natural contamination from underground geological layers was first confirmed in Ironically, the United Nations Children's Fund had introduced the wells in the more Water disinfection using chemicals is another source of chemical contamination of water.
Chlorination is currently the most widely practiced and most cost-effective method of disinfecting large community water supplies. This success in disinfecting water supplies has contributed significantly to public health by reducing the transmission of waterborne disease. However, chlorine reacts with naturally occurring organic matter in water to form potentially toxic chemical compounds, known collectively as disinfection by-products International Agency for Research on Cancer Exposure to Chemical Water Pollution Drinking contaminated water is the most direct route of exposure to pollutants in water.
The actual exposure via drinking water depends on the amount of water consumed, usually 2 to 3 liters per day for an adult, with higher amounts for people living in hot areas or people engaged in heavy physical work. Use of contaminated water in food preparation can result in contaminated food, because high cooking temperatures do not affect the toxicity of most chemical contaminants.
Inhalation exposure to volatile compounds during hot showers and skin exposure while bathing or using water for recreation are also potential routes of exposure to water pollutants. Toxic chemicals in water can affect unborn or young children by crossing the placenta or being ingested through breast milk. Estimating actual exposure via water involves analyzing the level of the contaminant in the water consumed and assessing daily water intake WHO Biological monitoring using blood or urine samples can be a precise tool for measuring total exposure from water, food, and air Yassi and others Health Effects No published estimates are available of the global burden of disease resulting from the overall effects of chemical pollutants in water.
The burden in specific local areas may be large, as in the example cited in box Other examples of a high local burden of disease are the nervous system diseases of methylmercury poisoning Minamata diseasethe kidney and bone diseases of chronic cadmium poisoning Itai-Itai diseaseand the circulatory system diseases of nitrate exposure methemoglobinemia and lead exposure anemia and hypertension. Acute exposure to contaminants in drinking water can cause irritation or inflammation of the eyes and nose, skin, and gastrointestinal system; however, the most important health effects are due to chronic exposure for example, liver toxicity to copper, arsenic, or chromium in drinking water.
Excretion of chemicals through the kidney targets the kidney for toxic effects, as seen with chemicals such as cadmium, copper, mercury, and chlorobenzene WHO Pesticides and other chemical contaminants that enter waterways through agricultural runoff, stormwater drains, and industrial discharges may persist in the environment for long periods and be transported by water or air over long distances.
They may disrupt the function of the endocrine system, resulting in reproductive, developmental, and behavioral problems. The endocrine disruptors can reduce fertility and increase the occurrence of stillbirths, birth defects, and hormonally dependent cancers such as breast, testicular, and prostate cancers. The effects on the developing nervous system can include impaired mental and psychomotor development, as well as cognitive impairment and behavior abnormalities WHO and International Programme on Chemical Safety Examples of endocrine disruptors include organochlorines, PCBs, alkylphenols, phytoestrogens natural estrogens in plantsand pharmaceuticals such as antibiotics and synthetic sex hormones from contraceptives.
Chemicals in drinking water can also be carcinogenic. Disinfection by-products and arsenic have been a particular concern International Agency for Research on Cancer Interventions The variety of hazardous pollutants that can occur in air or water also leads to many different interventions.
Interventions pertaining to environmental hazards are often more sustainable if they address the driving forces behind the pollution at the community level rather than attempt to deal with specific exposures at the individual level.
In addition, effective methods to prevent exposure to chemical hazards in the air or water may not exist at the individual level, and the only feasible individual-level intervention may be treating cases of illness. Some would label interventions at the driving force level as policy instruments. These include legal restrictions on the use of a toxic substance, such as banning the use of lead in gasoline, or community-level policies, such as boosting public transportation and reducing individual use of motor vehicles.
Interventions at the level of the state of the environment would include air quality monitoring linked to local actions to reduce pollution during especially polluted periods for example, banning vehicle use when pollution levels reach predetermined thresholds.
Interventions at the exposure level include using household water filters to reduce arsenic in drinking water as done in Bangladesh. Finally, interventions at the effect level would include actions by health services to protect or restore the health of people already showing signs of an adverse effect. Interventions to Reduce Air Pollution Reducing air pollution exposure is largely a technical issue.
Technologies to reduce pollution at its source are plentiful, as are technologies that reduce pollution by filtering it away from the emission source end-of-pipe solutions; see, for example, Gwilliam, Kojima, and Johnson Getting these technologies applied in practice requires government or corporate policies that guide technical decision making in the right direction. Such policies could involve outright bans such as requiring lead-free gasoline or asbestos-free vehicle brake linings or building materials ; guidance on desirable technologies for example, providing best-practice manuals ; or economic instruments that make using more polluting technologies more expensive than using less polluting technologies an example of the polluter pays principle.
Examples of technologies to reduce air pollution include the use of lead-free gasoline, which allows the use of catalytic converters on vehicles' exhaust systems. Such technologies significantly reduce the emissions of several air pollutants from vehicles box For trucks, buses, and an increasing number of smaller vehicles that use diesel fuel, improving the quality of the diesel itself by lowering its sulfur content is another way to reduce air pollution at the source.
More fuel-efficient vehicles, such as hybrid gas-electric vehicles, are another way forward. These vehicles can reduce gasoline consumption by about 50 percent during city driving.
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Policies that reduce "unnecessary" driving, or traffic demand management, can also reduce air pollution in urban areas. A system of congestion fees, in which drivers have to pay before entering central urban areas, was introduced in Singapore, Oslo, and London and has been effective in this respect.
Mexico City is one of the world's largest megacities, with nearly 20 million inhabitants. Local authorities have acknowledged its air quality problems since the s. The emissions from several million motor vehicles more Power plants and industrial plants that burn fossil fuels use a variety of filtering methods to reduce particles and scrubbing methods to reduce gases, although no effective method is currently available for the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide.
High chimneys dilute pollutants, but the combined input of pollutants from a number of smokestacks can still lead to an overload of pollutants. Large combined emissions from industry and power stations in the eastern United States drift north with the winds and cause damage to Canadian ecosystems. In Europe, emissions from the industrial belt across Belgium, Germany, and Poland drift north to Sweden and have damaged many lakes there. The convergence of air pollutants from many sources and the associated health effects have also been documented in relation to the multiple fires in Indonesia's rain forest in Brauer and Hisham-Hashim ; the brown cloud over large areas of Asia, which is mainly related to coal burning; and a similar brown cloud over central Europe in the summer, which is caused primarily by vehicle emissions.
Managing air pollution interventions involves monitoring air quality, which may focus on exceedances of air quality guidelines in specific hotspots or on attempts to establish a specific population's average exposure to pollution.
Sophisticated modeling in combination with monitoring has made it possible to start producing detailed estimates and maps of air pollution levels in key urban areas World Bankthus providing a powerful tool for assessing current health impacts and estimated changes in the health impacts brought about by defined air pollution interventions.
Interventions to Reduce Water Pollution Water pollution control requires action at all levels of the hierarchical framework shown in figure The ideal method to abate diffuse chemical pollution of waterways is to minimize or avoid the use of chemicals for industrial, agricultural, and domestic purposes. Adapting practices such as organic farming and integrated pest management could help protect waterways Scheierling Chemical contamination of waterways from industrial emissions could be reduced by cleaner production processes UNEP International and local experts initiated waste more Other interventions include proper treatment of hazardous waste and recycling of chemical containers and discarded products containing chemicals to reduce solid waste buildup and leaching of toxic chemicals into waterways.
A variety of technical solutions are available to filter out chemical waste from industrial processes or otherwise render them harmless. Changing the pH of wastewater or adding chemicals that flocculate the toxic chemicals so that they settle in sedimentation ponds are common methods. The same principle can be used at the individual household level. One example is the use of iron chips to filter out arsenic from contaminated well water in Bangladeshi households Kinniburgh and Smedley Intervention Costs and Cost-Effectiveness This chapter cannot follow the detailed format for the economic analysis of different preventive interventions devised for the disease-specific chapters, because the exposures, health effects, and interventions are too varied and because of the lack of overarching examples of economic assessments.
Nevertheless, it does present a few examples of the types of analyses available. Comparison of Interventions A review of more than 1, reports on cost per life year saved in the United States for interventions in the environment and other fields table The net costs included only direct costs and savings. Indirect costs, such as forgone earnings, were excluded. Future costs and life years saved were discounted at 5 percent per year.
Interventions with a cost per life year saved of less than or equal to zero cost less to implement than the value of the lives saved. Each of three categories of interventions toxin control, fatal injury reduction, and medicine presented in table The cost-effective interventions in the air pollution area could be of value in developing countries as their industrial and transportation pollution situations become similar to the United States in the s.
The review by Tengs and others does not report the extent to which the various interventions were implemented in existing pollution control or public health programs, and many of the most cost-effective interventions are probably already in wide use.
The review did create a good deal of controversy in the United States, because professionals and nongovernmental organizations active in the environmental field accused the authors of overestimating the costs and underestimating the benefits of controls over chemicals see, for example, U. Costs and Savings in Relation to Pollution Control A number of publications review and discuss the evidence on the costs and benefits of different pollution control interventions in industrial countries see, for example, U.
For developing countries, specific data on this topic are found primarily in the so-called gray literature: In each city, an emissions inventory was established, and rudimentary dispersion modeling was carried out. Various mitigation measures for reducing PM10 and health impacts were examined in terms of reductions in tons of PM10 emitted, cost of implementation, time frame for implementation, and health benefits and their associated cost savings.
Some of the abatement measures that have been implemented include introducing unleaded gasoline, tightening standards, introducing low-smoke lubricants for two-stroke engine vehicles, implementing inspections of vehicle exhaust emissions to address gross polluters, and reducing garbage burning.
Transportation policies and industrial development do not usually have air quality considerations as their primary objective, but the World Bank has developed a method to take these considerations into account. The costs of different air quality improvement policies are explored in relation to a baseline investment and the estimated health effects of air pollution.
A comparison will indicate the cost-effectiveness of each policy. The World Bank has worked out this "overlay" approach in some detail for the energy and forestry sectors in the analogous case of greenhouse gas reduction strategies World Bank Water Pollution The costs and benefits associated with interventions to remove chemical contaminants from water need to be assessed on a local or national basis to determine specific needs, available resources, environmental conditions including climateand sustainability.
A developing country for which substantial economic analysis of interventions has been carried out is China Dasgupta, Wang, and Wheeler ; Zhang and others Another country with major concerns about chemicals arsenic in water is Bangladesh.
The arsenic mitigation programs have applied various arsenic removal technologies, but the costs and benefits are not well established.
Alternative water supplies need to be considered when the costs of improving existing water sources outweigh the benefits. Harvesting rainwater may provide communities with safe drinking water, free of chemicals and micro-organisms, but contamination from roofs and storage tanks needs to be considered.
Rainwater collection is relatively inexpensive. Economic Benefits of Interventions One of the early examples of cost-benefit analysis for chemical pollution control is the Japan Environment Agency's study of three Japanese classical pollution diseases: Yokkaichi asthma, Minamata disease, and Itai-Itai disease table This analysis was intended to highlight the economic aspects of pollution control and to encourage governments in developing countries to consider both the costs and the benefits of industrial development.
The calculations take into account the 20 or 30 years that have elapsed since the disease outbreaks occurred and annualize the costs and benefits over a year period. The pollution damage costs are the actual payments for victims' compensation and the cost of environmental remediation. The compensation costs are based on court cases or government decisions and can be seen as a valid representation of the economic value of the health damage in each case.
A few studies have analyzed cost-benefit aspects of air pollution control in specific cities. Those analyses are based mainly on modeling health impacts from exposure and relationships between doses and responses.
Voorhees and others find that most studies that analyzed the situation in specific urban areas used health impact assessment to estimate impacts avoided by interventions. Investigators have used different methods for valuing the economic benefits of health improvements, including market valuation, stated preference methods, and revealed preference methods.