History of the United Nations - Wikipedia
An international body was first attempted in with the League of Nations. The League of Nations was to be an assembly where countries could meet and. The Founding of the UN in San Francisco. At the Quebec An agreed declaration was issued after a Foreign Ministers Conference in Moscow in October Heads of State will gather in New York on 26 September this year at the United Nations General Assembly first-ever high-level meeting on.
The first official use of the term "United Nations" was on 1—2 January when 26 Governments signed the Declaration. One major change from the Atlantic Charter was the addition of a provision for religious freedom, which Stalin approved after Roosevelt insisted. The foregoing declaration may be adhered to by other nations which are, or which may be, rendering material assistance and contributions in the struggle for victory over Hitlerism. To join countries had to sign the Declaration and declare war on the Axis.
US President Franklin D. Roosevelt considered his most important legacy the creation of the United Nations, making a permanent organization out of the wartime Alliance of the same name.
He provided continuous backstage political support inside the United States, and with Churchill and Stalin abroad. Roosevelt made sure that each including France had a veto power, thus avoiding the fatal weakness of the League of Nations, which theoretically could order its members to act in defiance of their own parliaments. Those and later talks produced proposals outlining the purposes of the United Nations organization, its membership and organs, as well as arrangements to maintain international peace and security and international economic and social cooperation.
Governments and private citizens worldwide discussed and debated these proposals. At the Yalta Conference it was agreed that membership would be open to nations that had joined the Allies by 1 March This draft had been prepared by a nation Committee of Jurists which had met in Washington in April All this sounds over-elaborate — especially when the four Commissions subdivided into twelve technical committees — but actually, it was the speediest way of ensuring the fullest discussion and securing the last ounce of agreement possible.
Music by American composer Aaron Copland.
First meeting of the United Nations
Clashes of Opinion There were only ten plenary meetings of all the delegates but nearly meetings of the committees at which every line and comma was hammered out. It was more than words and phrases, of course, that had to be decided upon.
There were many serious clashes of opinion, divergencies of outlook and even a crisis or two, during which some observers feared that the conference might adjourn without an agreement. There was the question, for example, of the status of "regional organizations. How were such arrangements to be related to the world organization?
The conference decided to give them part in peaceful settlement and also, in certain circumstances, in enforcement measures, provided that the aims and acts of these groups accorded with the aims and purposes of the United Nations. The League of Nations had provided machinery for the revision of treaties between members.
Should the United Nations make similar provisions? Treaties and Trusteeship The conference finally agreed that treaties made after the formation of the United Nations should be registered with the Secretariat and published by it.
San Francisco Conference
As to revision, no specific mention was made although such revision may be recommended by the General Assembly in the course of investigation of any situation requiring peaceful adjustment. The conference added a whole new chapter on the subject not covered by the Dumbarton Oaks proposals: On this matter there was much debate.
Should the aim of trusteeship be defined as "independence" or "self-government" for the peoples of these areas? If independence, what about areas too small ever to stand on their own legs for defence?
First session of the United Nations General Assembly - Wikipedia
It was finally recommended that the promotion of the progressive development of the peoples of trust territories should be directed toward "independence or self-government. Likewise the question of future amendments to the Charter received much attention and finally resulted in an agreed solution. Above all, the right of each of the "Big Five" to exercise a "veto" on action by the powerful Security Council provoked long and heated debate.
At one stage the conflict of opinion on this question threatened to break up the conference. The smaller powers feared that when one of the "Big Five" menaced the peace, the Security Council would be powerless to act, while in the event of a clash between two powers not permanent members of the Security Council, the "Big Five" could act arbitrarily. They strove, therefore, to have the power of the "veto" reduced.
But the great powers unanimously insisted on this provision as vital, and emphasized that the main responsibility for maintaining world peace would fall most heavily on them.Introduction to Model United Nations (MUN)
Eventually the smaller powers conceded the point in the interest of setting up the world organization. This and other vital issues were resolved only because every nation was determined to set up, if not the perfect international organization, at least the best that could possibly be made. Lord Halifax presided and put the final draft of the Charter to the meeting.
Then, as the issue was put, every delegate rose and remained standing. So did everyone present, the staffs, the press and some visitors, and the hall resounded to a mighty ovation as the Chairman announced that the Charter had been passed unanimously.
The Charter Is Signed The next day, in the auditorium of the Veterans' Memorial Hall, the delegates filed up one by one to a huge round table on which lay the two historic volumes, the Charter and the Statute of the International Court of Justice. Behind each delegate stood the other members of the delegation against a colorful semi-circle of the flags of fifty nations.
In the dazzling brilliance of powerful spotlights, each delegate affixed his signature. To China, first victim of aggression by an Axis power, fell the honour of signing first.