Finally, on May 5, , the Estates General met and argued over whether to vote by The Directory (–): The Constitution of restricted voting and results were annulled, and the Directory shed its last pretense of legitimacy. Political instability and the fall of the French Directory () . were used during the Directory as a means to resolve problems and unwanted election results. However, these elections were indirect and only people met the property Online available at: raznomir.info mmoiresdelarev03lareuoft. Live Notification Services. Sign up and receive live scores directly to your mobile phone. Follow as many clubs and athletes as you like, this service is unlimited.
It refrained from adding more taxes on wine and salt, which had helped cause the revolution, but added new taxes on gold and silver objects, playing cards, tobacco, and other luxury products. Through these means, the Directory brought about a relative stability of finances which continued through the Directory and Consulate.
To assure the supply of food to the sans-culottes in Paris, the base of support of the Jacobinsthe Convention had strictly regulated grain distribution and set maximum prices for bread and other essential products.
The Directory (): Framing of the Constitution of France
As the value of the currency dropped, the fixed prices soon did not cover the cost of production, and supplies dropped. The Convention was forced to abolish the maximum on 24 Decemberbut it continued to buy huge quantities of bread and meat which it distributed at low prices to the Parisians.
This Paris food distribution cost a large part of the national budget, and was resented by the rest of the country, which did not have that benefit. By earlythe grain supply was supplemented by deliveries from Italy and even from Algeria.
- The Directory (1795-99): Framing of the Constitution of France
Despite the increased imports, the grain supply to Paris was not enough. The Ministry of the Interior reported on 23 March that there was only enough wheat to make bread for five days, and there were shortages of meat and firewood. The Directory was forced to resume deliveries of subsidized food to the very poor, the elderly, the sick, and government employees. The food shortages and high prices were one factor in the growth of discontent and the Gracchus Babeuf 's uprising, the Conspiracy of the Equalsin The harvests were good in the following years and the food supplies improved considerably, but the supply was still precarious in the north, the west, the southeast, and the valley of the Seine.
Babeuf had, sincebeen drawn to the Agrarian Law, an agrarian reform preconized by the ancient Roman brothers, Tiberius and Gaius Gracchusof sharing goods in common, as means of achieving economic equality.
By the time of the fall of Robespierrehe had abandoned this as an impractical scheme and was moving towards a more complex plan. Babeuf did not believe that the mass of French citizens was ready for self-government; accordingly, he proposed a dictatorship under his leadership until the people were educated enough to take charge. Your tribune presents himself with confidence. However, his popularity increased in the working-class of the capital with the drop in value of the assignats, which rapidly resulted in the decrease of wages and the rise of food prices.
The Conspiracy of Equals was organized in a novel way: This conspiratorial structure was later adopted by Marxist movements. Despite his precautions, the Directory infiltrated an agent into the conspiracy, and was fully informed of what he was doing. Though he was a talented agitator, he was a very poor conspirator; with him in his hiding place were the complete records of the conspiracy, with all of the names of the conspirators.
Despite this setback, the conspiracy went ahead with its plans. At the same time a column of militants was formed in the working-class neighborhoods of Paris to march on the Luxembourg Palace, headquarters of the Directory. Director Carnot had been informed the night before by the commander of the camp, and a unit of dragoons was ready. When the attack began at about ten o'clock, the dragoons appeared suddenly and charged. About twenty Jacobins were killed, and the others arrested.
The column of militants, learning what had happened, disbanded in confusion. The widespread arrest of Babeuf's militants and Jacobins followed. The practice of arresting suspects at their homes at night, stopped after the downfall of Robespierre, was resumed on this occasion.
Despite his arrest, Babeuf, in jail, still felt he could negotiate with the government. There was corruption all around. There was enormous waste in public expenditure. A lot of money was required to support an army of a million men. The population of Paris had to be fed at the cost of the nation.
The position of Assignats issued by the National Assembly was already not satisfactory.
It was made worse by a policy of further inflation. There was so great a use of the printing press that the value of the Assignats fell. The condition became so hopeless that as many as livres in Assignats were required to get one livre in cash.
Inthe Government was forced to declare partial bankruptcy. Payment of interest on the national debt was suspended and ultimately the Assignats had to be repudiated altogether. Obviously, such a state of affairs could not be expected to bring any credit to the Government and so the Directory was condemned by the people who were really in great distress on account of the failure of the Directory to tackle the financial problem. There was no harmony between the Directors and the two legislative chambers.
One-third of the Assemblies and one out of the five Directors retired every year. The Directory was not in sympathy with either the Assemblies or the constituencies. The religious problem demanded attention. The Constitutional Church set up by the Revolution had almost disappeared. The Roman Catholic Church was still strong and popular with the people. There were more than three hundred thousand emigres. Their property had been confiscated.
Many persons were declared emigres so that their property might be captured. No wonder, their relatives protested against those acts of injustice and that created unrest.
In Marchelections took place to fill the place of one-third members of the Assemblies. The results showed great gains for the Moderates and anti-Jacobin party. The Directors were not prepared to yield.
They appealed to Hoche but he declined. They asked Napoleon to do the needful. He sent his officer, Augereau, to carry out his instructions. The show of force was enough. Carnot was deposed from the Directory. A number of Deputies were arrested, including Pichegrus. After that, the results of electors were cancelled.
The general plan of the campaign was to advance one French army across the Rhine through Germany and from there into the Austrian dominion and to send another army across the Alps through Northern Italy to Vienna. As regards the army of the Rhine, such great Generals as Moreau, Jourdan and Pichegrus were to be in charge. As regards the army to be sent to Italy, Napoleon Bonaparte was appointed the commander. While the French troops sent to the Rhine did not accomplish much.
With lightning speed and great personal bravery. Napoleon was able to cross the Alps. Within a year, he was able to dispose of five Austrian armies and he occupied every fort in Northern Italy. The Sardinians were defeated and forced to give Nice and Savoy to France.
Austria made peace with Napoleon by signing the Treaty of Campo Formio in Austria was given the republic of Venice and she agreed not to interfere in other parts of Italy.
It was agreed that a conference was to meet to rearrange the map of the Holy Roman Empire with a view to compensating those German princes whose lands on the left of the Rhine had been appropriated by France. One of the immediate effects of the victory of Napoleon in Italy was the dissolution of the first Coalition.
Another effect of the victory was the sudden rise of Napoleon to fame. He became the talk of the people of France and while the people applauded him, the Government feared him but outwardly flattered him. The peace of the continent will soon be set on an indestructible base.
Constitution of the Year III - Wikisource, the free online library
It remains only now to punish the perfidy of London. There the ills of Europe have sprung; there they must be ended. In the beginning of he inspected the coastline and came to the conclusion that it was impossible to cross the English Channel so long as France had not a strong navy. However, he decided to attack the British Empire on some other point.
Constitution of the Year III
He fixed the Mediterranean open to him and consequently he managed to take a French army to Egypt in His intention was to side-track the attention of the British navy in the Mediterranean and, after getting the opportunity, to attack England by crossing the English Channel.
There was also the possibility of his attacking the Ottoman Empire from Egypt and smashing the same. Unfortunately for Napoleon, all his schemes fell through. Admiral Nelson pursued him to Egypt and defeated him in the naval Battle of the Nile The people of Egypt also revolted against him.
His army was small and he felt himself isolated. However, Napoleon managed to escape from Egypt and reached France. From the place of landing all the way up to Paris, he was applauded by the crowds.
The people compared the achievements of Napoleon with those of the Directory and condemned the latter. Overthrow of the Directory: On his arrival in Paris, Napoleon appeared in the role of the modest and studious civilian.