The Relationship Between Mental & Physical Health
There is a strong link between mental health and physical health, but little is known On the full population, lifestyle factors explain up to 70% of the burden of disease Many psychological, epidemiologic, and economic studies have used. Health psychology focuses on how biology, psychology, behavior and social factors influence health and illness. What Is Health Psychology? are sometimes used interchangeably with the term health psychology. Division 38 of the American Psychological Association is devoted to health psychology. The American Psychological Associations division 38 is health psychology . What is the relationship between emotional health, physical wellness and illness ?.
Usually, physical health is the most commonly used index to assess the well-being of individuals. As people grow older, they might perceive that their physical health e. The importance of health among oldest-old adults, especially the prevalence rates of chronic conditions, was shown in a study of Danish centenarians [ 2 ]. This assertion was supported by another centenarian study.
After assessing the health history of centenarians, Evert et al.
Therefore, most oldest-old adults reported chronic health conditions. S] and serves as one of the most important determinants for psychological well-being in later life. Hoeymans and colleagues noted that subjective health is a valuable and personalized health indicator, specifying one's perception and evaluation of one's own health, based on an interpretation of the objective physical and mental health status, and expectations and comparisons [ 5 — 10 ].
Because individuals' attitudes, motivations, and beliefs influence perceptions of illness and disability, individual differences in subjective health might play an important role for psychological well-being in later life [ 11 ]. For instance, as psychological characteristics involve an individual's ability and willingness to adapt to physical change [ 12 ], the subjective experience is influenced by various kinds of diseases or illness histories [ 1113 ].
Psychological well-being has been examined as an indicator of successful adaptation during old and very old age [ 14 ]. Bradburn considered the subjective assessment of well-being as the balance between positive and negative affect [ 15 ]. These two dimensions of well-being may be the origin of psychological well-being [ 1516 ].
The two types of affect may have different adaptive functions. Negative affect refers to a consequence of maladaptive behavior, whereas positive affect may be considered reinforcement for adaptive or appropriate behavior [ 1516 ]. Larson summarized previous studies of psychological well-being performed over a year period s—s and noted that the construct is strongly associated with physical health status, functional status, and socio-demographic factors, including occupation, income, educational level, and the degree of social interaction [ 1718 ].
Hamashima examined previous studies of psychological well-being specifically, quality of life in Japan and concluded that it was influenced by physical health and other factors such as age, marital status, occupation, and economic status [ 18 — 20 ]. Based on previous studies, the effect of physical health needs to be considered when accounting for well-being in later life.
The importance of physical health for psychological well-being has been reported in a number of studies. Revicki and Mitchell, for example, found that physical health problems were the most important source of life strain among older adults [ 21 ]. Physical health can have a major impact on subjective well-being. For instance, Bishop et al.
In addition, there are several studies that have focused on the influence of specific diseases on psychological well-being. For example, positive affect was related to fewer stroke symptoms [ 23 ], and low cardiovascular risk was associated not only with better survival but also with better psychological well-being in older adults [ 24 ]. These studies all demonstrated that perceived health is associated with objective health [ 25 ].
Several studies uncovered the strong relationships between perceived health and long-standing chronic illness, especially among older adults [ 25 — 29 ] and with other health indicators such as number of medications, sick days, or hospitalizations [ 2530 — 32 ]. As shown in previous studies, there is a close association between objective and subjective assessments of personal health, and this association influences psychological well-being [ 11 ].
In other words, individuals' psychological well-being is affected by medical history, current physical symptoms and body sensations, health beliefs and behaviors, and mental and emotional well-being [ 1133 ]. Additionally, the major factor of subjective health is objective physical health, that is, chronic conditions and disabilities.
Many studies have noted the relations between chronic conditions, disabilities, and subjective health [ 52534 — 38 ].
Even though a number of studies have suggested a strong association between physical health objective and subjective and psychological well-being, many studies only include individuals between the ages of 60 to 80 years, and there is little information about this association for very old age [ 39 ]. Therefore, additional research needs to focus on both physical health markers and subjective health predicting psychological well-being in very late life because this time is often characterized by a functional decline or breakdown of the physical and psychological system [ 39 ].
The purpose of this study was to assess the association of different aspects objective and subjective of physical health and their direct and indirect effect on psychological well-being i. The first one was to identify the proportion of all residents of skilled nursing facilities SNFs and personal care homes PCHs in a county area in northern Georgia. Health psychologists employ diverse research methods.
These methods include controlled randomized experimentsquasi-experimentslongitudinal studiestime-series designs, cross-sectional studiescase-control studies, qualitative research as well as action research. Health psychologists study a broad range of variables including cardiovascular diseasecardiac psychologysmoking habits, the relation of religious beliefs to health, alcohol use, social support, living conditions, emotional state, social class, and more.
Some health psychologists treat individuals with sleep problems, headaches, alcohol problems, etc. Other health psychologists work to empower community members by helping community members gain control over their health and improve quality of life of entire communities. Origins and development[ edit ] Psychological factors in health had been studied since the early 20th century by disciplines such as psychosomatic medicine and later behavioral medicinebut these were primarily branches of medicine, not psychology.
Health psychology - Wikipedia
Health psychology began to emerge as a distinct discipline of psychology in the United States in the s. In the midth century there was a growing understanding in medicine of the effect of behavior on health. For example, the Alameda County Studywhich began in the s, showed that people who ate regular meals e. Medical psychology, however, was a relatively small field, primarily aimed at helping patients adjust to illness.
One of the few psychologists working in this area at the time, Schofield proposed new forms of education and training for future psychologists. The APA, responding to his proposal, in established a task force to consider how psychologists could a help people to manage their health-related behaviors, b help patients manage their physical health problems, and c train healthcare staff to work more effectively with patients.
At the first divisional conference, Matarazzo delivered a speech that played an important role in defining health psychology.
He defined the new field in this way, "Health psychology is the aggregate of the specific educational, scientific and professional contributions of the discipline of psychology to the promotion and maintenance of health, the prevention and treatment of illness, the identification of diagnostic and etiologic correlates of health, illness and related dysfunction, and the analysis and improvement of the healthcare system and health policy formation.
The European Health Psychology Society was also established in Similar organizations were established in other countries, including Australia and Japan. In the US, post-doctoral level health psychology training programs were established for individuals who completed a doctoral degree in clinical psychology.
A number of relevant trends coincided with the emergence of health psychology, including: Epidemiological evidence linking behavior and health.
The awarding of divisional status meant that the individual training needs and professional practice of health psychologists were recognized, and members were able to obtain chartered status with the BPS. The BPS went on to regulate training and practice in health psychology until the regulation of professional standards and qualifications was taken over by statutory registration with the Health Professions Council in They also recommend ways to improve health care policy.
They have also studied the association between illness and individual characteristics.
Physical addiction impedes smoking cessation. Some research suggests that seductive advertising also contributes to psychological dependency on tobacco,  although other research has found no relationship between media exposure and smoking in youth. Health psychologists employ cognitive behavior therapy and applied behavior analysis also see behavior modification for that purpose.
Preventing illness[ edit ] Health psychologists promote health through behavioral change, as mentioned above; however, they attempt to prevent illness in other ways as well. Health psychologists try to help people to lead a healthy life by developing and running programmes which can help people to make changes in their lives such as stopping smoking, reducing the amount of alcohol they consume, eating more healthily, and exercising regularly.
Those least able to afford tobacco products consume them most. Tobacco provides individuals with a way of controlling aversive emotional states accompanying daily experiences of stress that characterize the lives of deprived and vulnerable individuals.
Moreover, many individuals are often unable to apply their knowledge of health practices owing to everyday pressures and stresses.
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- The Relationship between Physical Health and Psychological Well-Being among Oldest-Old Adults
- The Relationship Between Mental & Physical Health
A common example of population-based attempts to motivate the smoking public to reduce its dependence on cigarettes is anti-smoking campaigns. Health psychologists have worked to understand why some people do not seek early screenings or immunizations, and have used that knowledge to develop ways to encourage people to have early health checks for illnesses such as cancer and heart disease.
For example, Kompier and his colleagues  have shown that a number of interventions aimed at reducing stress in bus drivers has had beneficial effects for employees and bus companies.
The effects of disease[ edit ] Health psychologists investigate how disease affects individuals' psychological well-being. An individual who becomes seriously ill or injured faces many different practical stressors. These stressors include problems meeting medical and other bills, problems obtaining proper care when home from the hospital, obstacles to caring for dependents, the experience of having one's sense of self-reliance compromised, gaining a new, unwanted identity as that of a sick person, and so on.
These stressors can lead to depression, reduced self-esteem, etc.7 Relationship between stress and health
When there is little hope of recovery, health psychologist therapists can improve the quality of life of the patient by helping the patient recover at least some of his or her psychological well-being. These avenues of research expand the scope of health psychology beyond the level of individual health to an examination of the social and economic determinants of health both within and between regions and nations.
The individualism of mainstream health psychology has been critiqued and deconstructed by critical health psychologists using qualitative methods that zero in on the health experience.
Health psychologists apply this knowledge to conduct research on a variety of questions. What influences healthy eating? How is stress linked to heart disease?