Interpersonal communication skills that enhance organizational commitment. School University of . 5 pages QBUS Project Planning and Management. pdf. Intelligence. Interpersonal Skills and Organizational Commitment. 52 As the Moderator in the Relationship between Interpersonal. Skills developing and clearly communicating challenging, achievable, relevant, and measurable. organization hence, this paper on improving interpersonal relationship in as job satisfaction, job commitment, engagement and perceived organizational support purpose, working professionals need to have good relationship between relations can be maintained by effective workplace communication and team work.
Continuation — This stage follows a mutual commitment to quite a strong and close long-term friendship, romantic relationship, or even marriage. It is generally a long, relatively stable period. Nevertheless, continued growth and development will occur during this time. Mutual trust is important for sustaining the relationship.
Deterioration — Not all relationships deteriorate, but those that do tend to show signs of trouble.
Boredom, resentment, and dissatisfaction may occur, and individuals may communicate less and avoid self-disclosure. Loss of trust and betrayals may take place as the downward spiral continues, eventually ending the relationship. Alternately, the participants may find some way to resolve the problems and reestablish trust and belief in others. Ending — The final stage marks the end of the relationship, either by breakups, death, or by spatial separation for quite some time and severing all existing ties of either friendship or romantic love.
Terminating a relationship[ edit ] According to the latest Systematic Review of the Economic Literature on the Factors associated with Life Satisfaction dating fromstable and secure relationships are beneficial, and correspondingly, relationship dissolution is harmful.
Breaking up can actually be a positive experience when the relationship did not expand the self and when the breakup leads to personal growth. They also recommend some ways to cope with the experience: Purposefully focussing on the positive aspects of the breakup "factors leading up to the break-up, the actual break-up, and the time right after the break-up" Minimising the negative emotions Journaling the positive aspects of the breakup e.
This exercise works best, although not exclusively, when the breakup is mutual.
Furthermore, rebound relationships don't last any shorter than regular relationships. One reason cited for divorce is infidelity. The determinants of unfaithfulness are debated by dating service providers, feminists, academics and science communicators. Conversely, costs are the negative or unpleasant aspects of the partner or their relationship. Comparison level includes what each partner expects of the relationship. The comparison level is influenced by past relationships, and general relationship expectations they are taught by family and friends.
Individuals in long-distance relationshipsLDRs, rated their relationships as more satisfying than individuals in proximal relationship, PRs. LDR couples reported the same level of relationship satisfaction as couples in PRs, despite only seeing each other on average once every 23 days. Therefore, the costs and benefits of the relationship are subjective to the individual, and people in LDRs tend to report lower costs and higher rewards in their relationship compared to PRs.
Background[ edit ] While traditional psychologists specializing in close relationships have focused on relationship dysfunction, positive psychology argues that relationship health is not merely the absence of relationship dysfunction.
Additionally, healthy relationships can be made to "flourish. A social skills approach posits that individuals differ in their degree of communication skill, which has implications for their relationships. Relationships in which partners possess and enact relevant communication skills are more satisfying and stable than relationships in which partners lack appropriate communication skills.
Adult attachment models represent an internal set of expectations and preferences regarding relationship intimacy that guide behavior. Within the context of safe, secure attachments, people can pursue optimal human functioning and flourishing.
Secure individuals are comfortable with intimacy and interdependence and are usually optimistic and social in everyday life. Securely attached individuals usually use their partners for emotion regulation so they prefer to have their partners in close proximity. Preoccupied people are normally uneasy and vigilant towards any threat to the relationship and tend to be needy and jealous.
Thus, communicators should select channels based on message ambiguity, media richness, organizational culture and available resources. Measureable Benefits Internal communication continues to evolve in a dynamic world characterized by an explosion of new technologies, intense global competition and rapid change. A growing body of evidence demonstrates that effective internal communications help increase employee job satisfaction, morale, productivity, commitment, trust and learning; improve communication climate and relationships with publics; and enhance quality, revenues and earnings.
Here are some examples: More than 80 percent of employees polled in the US and UK said that employee communication influences their desire to stay with or leave an organization. A significant improvement in communication effectiveness in organizations was linked to a Effective communication facilitates engagement and builds trust, which is a critical ingredient in strong, viable organizations Grates, Engaged employees enhance business performance because they influence customer behavior, which directly affects revenue growth and profitability Towers Perrin, The Evolution of Internal Communication Social theorist James Colemantraced the rise of large organizations and claimed they have changed communications practices and personal relationships through two powerful interactions: Large organizations were relatively new in the early 20th century, apart from government and the military, so theories developed to explain how organizations worked and tried to achieve their goals.
This section outlines five theoretical approaches that evolved in the last century—the classical, human relations, human resources, systems and cultural approaches. Communication features or characteristics of each approach are briefly described. More comprehensive treatments may be found in many communication texts, e. Classical Approaches Sometimes referred to as the machine metaphor because of how employees were viewed as interchangeable parts, this approach is grounded in scientific management theories of work and workers in the early 20th century.
Frederick Taylor was the best known proponent of this approach. He studied factory production lines and concluded that work processes could be improved by applying scientific principles to jobs and workers.
These included such things as designing each task to improve performance, hiring workers who possessed characteristics that matched each job and training workers and rewarding them for productivity achievements. Henri Fayol believed that operational efficiency could be improved through better managerial practices.
He prescribed five elements of managing planning, organizing, command, coordination and control and 14 principles of administration. During times of emergency, however, he indicated that employees might communicate with each other across the organization. Some key components of this approach included: Two key communication goals were to prevent misunderstandings, which might impair productivity or quality, and to convey decisions and directives of top management.
The formal structure of organizations drove top-down communication, primarily through print channels. The content of most communications was task or rule oriented. The social side of communication was largely ignored, and employees relied heavily on the grapevine for such information.
Interpersonal relationship - Wikipedia
Human Relations Approaches In the s, the focus shifted from work tasks to employees and their needs, and the Hawthorne Studies spurred this movement. Carried out at the Western Electric Company in Chicago, the studies revealed the importance of groups and human relationships in work.
Elton Mayo and his Harvard colleagues discovered that employees who worked in friendly teams, with supportive supervisors, tended to outperform employees who worked in less favorable conditions. In his view, the key to cooperation was communication: These approaches focused on opposing assumptions that managers may hold for workers, and the corresponding behaviors of managers.
Simply put, Theory X managers believe workers lack motivation, resist change and are indifferent to organizational goals. Thus, managers must provide strong, forceful leadership to direct and control employees. Theory Y managers believe employees are highly motivated, creative and driven to satisfy their needs for achievement.
The role of managers, then, is to elicit those tendencies through employee participation in decision making, managing by objectives and problem solving in work teams. This approach included more F-T-F communication and acknowledged the importance of internal communications. Downward communication still dominated, but feedback was gathered to gauge employee satisfaction. Some social information was added to the task-oriented content of communication, and managerial communications were less formal.
Human Resources Approaches The human resources approach Miles, was widely adopted by organizations in the s. This participative, team approach to management-employee relations recognized that employees can contribute both physical and mental labor.
The preferred team-management style—high on concern for both people and production—became the basis for management development practices in a number of companies. Quality control circles, decentralized organizations, total quality management and employee participation groups are manifestations of this approach. Focusing more on organizational structure, Rensis Likerttheorized four organizational forms and labeled them System I through System IV. Likert believed that a System IV organization, characterized by multi-directional communication and a participatory style and structure, would spur productivity gains and reduce absenteeism and turnover.
Other theorists argued that the best leadership style would vary from one event to another, depending on contingencies in the environment.
Fiedler said that leaders should first define a contingency and then determine the most appropriate leadership behaviors to deal with it. Contingency theory recognizes that organizations and environments are constantly changing, and there is a need to monitor environments and carefully analyze information before making decisions. Communication became multidirectional and more relational.
Feedback was sought to enhance problem solving and stimulate idea sharing. Innovation content was added to social and task information in communications. Concepts of employee trust and commitment emerged as important issues, and organizations began to share communication decision-making among employees. Systems Approaches In the s some theorists adopted a systems perspective, viewing organizations as complex organisms competing to survive and thrive in challenging environments.
In general systems theory, any system is a group of parts that are arranged in complex ways and which interact with each other through processes to achieve goals vonBertalanffy, An auto supply company, for example, consists of a number of departments or units production, marketing, finance, saleseach of which includes individuals and teams. The functioning of any of these units or subsystems relies on others in the organization; they are interdependent.
The company is also part of a larger supra system—the automobile industry. Systems and subsystems have boundaries that are selectively opened or closed to their environments, allowing the flow of information and other resources. Individuals who exchange information with other systems or groups customers, government personnel, suppliers are boundary spanners. Media outlets provide other important links between organizations and the environment. Weick used systems theory to explain organizational behavior and the process of sense making.
He argued that communication is the core process of organizing; through information produced by processes or patterns of behavior, systems can increase their knowledge and reduce uncertainty about the complex environments in which they operate.
Communication is vital for exchanging information in and among subsystems through multidirectional channels which are used in internal communications.
Feedback processes help systems adjust, change and maintain control. Collective decision-making processes and shared responsibilities for communication are more prevalent.
Cultural Approaches Cultural approaches emerged in the s in the context of increasing competition from Japan and other nations in the global marketplace.
Employee / Organizational Communications
As the performance of American corporations declined, management scholars looked for other explanations of the behaviors and practices in the troubled companies. The cultural approach was attractive because of its dynamic nature and the kind of depth insights it can provide Schein, Two popular books in the s influenced organizational practices and structures and helped culture gain mainstream recognition.
These included customer focus, employee empowerment, trust, shared values and lean organizational structures. Miller distinguished between prescriptive and descriptive approaches to examining organizational cultures.
This approach rejects the notion of a one-size-fits-all cultural formula for success and focuses on how communications and interactions lead to shared meaning. Descriptive approaches also call attention to other important aspects of organizational culture, e. Communication and culture share a reciprocal relationship Modaff et al.
Communications help create and influence culture through formal and informal channels, stories, shared experiences and social activities.
Culture influences communications because employees interact though shared interpretive frameworks of culture, e. The Center for Information and Research on Civic Learning and Engagement also reports that Millennials are volunteering at historically high rates.
Are Millennials who are socialized toward volunteerism more likely to volunteer, and are they more likely to hold altruistic leadership values? Conclusion Millennials have distinctive characteristics that may make interacting with them different from with previous cohorts, but each modern generation has arrived in the workplace with its own unique set of qualities Noble and Schewe ; Wade-Benzoni For example, empirical studies support the stereotypes that Boomers are ambitious workaholics who may be critical of coworkers who do not share those values McGuire et al.
What may be most different about Millennials is the amount of attention they have received—not only from their parents, but from scholars, the popular literature, and the popular press. Scholarship related to Millennial organizational members can benefit by drawing on intergenerational communication research e. A more productive goal may be to focus on what each generation offers to team and organizational performance, and how these qualities affect workplace communication, behaviors, and relationships McCann and Giles To date, the lack of such research is sadly noteworthy McCann and Giles As we have suggested, Millennials are likely to be acutely affected by globalization, communication and information technologies, economics, and socialization by very involved parents.
They are likely to have different, often broader, perspectives about the world marketplace, supervisor—subordinate relationships, cultural diversity, performance of tasks, and ways that communication and information technologies can be used to enhance organizational performance and to maximize productivity. Many of these Millennial stances and behaviors can be viewed by organizations as opportunities rather than obstacles. The key for coworkers from older generations—especially those in positions of formal and informal power in organizations—will be interacting with Millennials with a desire to understand, rather than with the aim of criticizing how Millennials are different.
Which Millennial qualities have translated to favorable changes, for example? How have organizational members modified their communication to manage conflict between the cohorts?
Another important area of research could examine how Millennials are affected by interaction with supervisors and coworkers. Will they adapt as they gain experience, and as a result of interaction with their Boomer and Generation X colleagues? Or, will they retain their positive qualities, remaining optimistic, team oriented, and committed to balancing personal and work life? Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author s and source are credited.
Footnotes 1We distinguish three source types. Popular press items include online articles and blogs, newspaper articles, and non-expert magazine columns. While these might allude to surveys or empirical studies, they are primarily entertainment-focused and should not be considered as substantive evidence of differences among the generations. These sources are the most common, but they are the least reliable. Popular literature includes books and articles that are written for trade and other audiences.
These works base their claims on secondary research including surveys and even more empirical studies. We also include in this group commercially administered surveys and associated reports. Empiricalstudies or research offer the most powerful evidence.
These studies are theory-driven and rely on sound social scientific methods. They are either peer-reviewed or were the basis of dissertations or theses, and therefore subject to expert scrutiny.
Although we prefer these sources, they are the fewest in number. Contributor Information Karen K. Knapp M, Miller GR, editors. Handbook of interpersonal communication. Journal of Applied Communication Research. The trophy kids group up: How the Millennial generation is shaping up the workplace.
Gen Y in the workforce commentary. Alvesson M, Willmott H. Identity regulations as organizational control: Producing the appropriate individual. Journal of Management Studies. Negotiation and the gender divide. Princeton University Press; Communicating and organizing in time: A meso-level model of organizational temporality.
Communication-related organizational structures and work group temporal experiences: Tightening the iron cage: Concertive control in self-managing teams. The concept and practices of discipline in contemporary organizational life. Fitting in or making jobs fit: Factors affecting mode of adjustment for new hires.
The influence of maternal work patterns and socioeconomic status on Gen Y lifestyle choice. Journal of Career Development. How mobility affects team performance: The role of voice in selection procedures on newcomer influence in teams. Interpersonal expectations, expectancy violations, and emotional communication. Journal of Language and Social Psychology. Mindfulness and interpersonal communication.
Journal of Social Issues. The role of recruiter function, work-life balance policies and career salience. International Journal of Selection and Assessment.
Downward trend in high school volunteering. Its content and consequences. Journal of Applied Psychology.
The influence of demographic heterogeneity on the emergence and consequences of cooperative norms in work teams. Academy of Management Journal.
International Journal of Behavioral Development. Organizational Communication in an age of globalization: Issues, reflections and practices.
Retrieved October 18,from http: Communicating for managerial effectiveness. Collinson DL, Collinson M. Delayering managers, time-space surveillance and its gendered effects.
Naming men as men: Implications for work, organization and management, gender. Retrieved July 19,from http: Interactional influence in the structuring of media use in groups: Cultural diversity in organizations. A new approach to managerial information processing.
Staw B, Cummings LL, editors.