Orchid Bees (The Euglossines)
Ophrys apifera, known in Europe as the bee orchid, is a perennial herbaceous plant belonging to the family Orchidaceae. It is remarkable as an example of sexually-deceptive pollination and floral mimicry as well as of a highly-selective and highly evolved plant-pollinator relationship. Grows well in a sunny dry border or on a scree. Orchids are, in general, shallow-rooting plants of well-drained low-fertility soils. Their symbiotic relationship. The genus Ophrys is a large group of orchids from the alliance Orchis in the subtribe They are referred to as the "bee orchids" due to the flowers of some species resemblance to the furry bodies of bees and other insects. Their scientific name.
Orchid bees have recently become a part of our continental American fauna. Along with 22 other species of introduced bees, an orchid bee Euglossa viridissima has become naturalized in several areas of Florida where it now routinely visits orchids, other flowers and scent resources. Its population seems stable and expanding into new areas. There is also a record of Eulaema from a single specimen in southern Arizona. One thing makes euglossine bees unique and different from other pollinating bees.
The males interact in highly specialized behaviors with equally complex and bizarre orchid flowers. Certain neotropical orchids especially the genera Catasetum, Gongora, Stanhopea, and Vanilla produce strong "medicinal" or flavoring scents that attract orchid bee males to their blossoms from a great distance.
- The Evolution of the Orchid and the Orchid Bee
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- Orchid Bees (The Euglossines)
Scents including those of eucalyptus, vanilla, and wintergreen are found in the complex scents of euglossine-pollinated orchids. Orchid bee males can be attracted to blotter pads doused with these synthetic orchid scents and this is one way that biologists know about their seasonal abundance patterns and diversity.
Male euglossines visit orchids in addition to tree wounds, fungi and certain flowers to collect scent volatiles. Using specialized scraper hairs on their front legs, they gather up these essential oils and store them within glands in their inflated hind legs.
Timing is everything: In which an intimate relationship turns out to be rather one-sided
Over a period of weeks or months, males collect a species-specific mixture of scents. One or more males gather in "leks" display sites on tree trunks where they release some of their harvested scents while buzzing, flying out from their tree, and returning.Orchid pollination through sexual deception - Nikon D3s
Although rarely observed, females seem to choose among males and mate with them in these territorial sites. Orchids are unusual flowers.
They present their pollen shrink-wrapped in two yellow rounded packets in a precise release and delivery system. In one especially bizarre flower, the bucket orchid Coryanthes spp.
These pollen masses are then transported to different flowers when the bee next attempts pseudocopulation. Pollination depends not only on male bees emerging before female bees and before flowering, but also, crucially, on the orchid flowering before female bees emerge.
The Evolution of the Orchid and the Orchid Bee | Science | Smithsonian
However, rising temperatures have led to male bee flight, female bee flight and flowering all occurring earlier in the calendar year, but the timings of the three events are not changing at the same rate. This is causing an increasing frequency of years in which the sequence of events needed for successful pollination male bee emergence before orchid flowering before female bee emergence does not occur.
The study shows that, since the midth century, as recorded spring temperatures have gradually risen, the interval between male and female bees emerging from hibernation has decreased significantly. Most critically, however, higher spring temperatures now make female bees likely to achieve peak flying more than a week before peak orchid flowering date.
The Buffish Mining-bee is coming out of hibernation earlier in the year because of rising spring temperatures.
Ophrys - Wikipedia
University of Sussex As female bees now take flight before the orchid flowers in almost every year, male bees will mate by preference with females rather than pseudocopulate with the orchid, simply because female bees are available as a better alternative when the orchid is flowering.
Orchid pollination is therefore much less likely nowadays than when spring temperatures were lower, and it may fail completely in almost all years. But Professor Hutchings warns that unless the orchid undergoes rapid selection for earlier flowering following warm springs, it is likely that continued climate change will result in it always flowering after the emergence of female bees.