The relationship questionnaire-clinical version (RQ-CV): Introducing a profoundly -distrustful attachment style (English). Holmes, B. M. / Lyons-Ruth, K. The Swedish version of the Central Relationship Questionnaire (CRQ), a recently developed self-report instrument based on the CCRT, was tested in a sample. Relationship Questionnaire (CRQ), a measure of central relationship patterns. These patterns The clinical utility of theory-driven measures of central relationship patterns . The development of the self-report version of the CCRT method.
To solve this problem, the tailor-made method has been supplemented by a system of standard categories of Wishes, ROs, and RSs that each judge rates. Nevertheless, the CCRT remains a cumbersome and costly method, given that it requires transcribed data and independent judges' CCRT ratings, and this limits its usefulness in large-scale empirical investigations.
Wishes, ROs, and RSs. The subscales are presented in Table 1along with the number of items within each subscale. The CRQ subscales can be divided into two categories: Internal consistency and means and standard deviations of CRQ subscales in three samples Open in a separate window The CRQ components have been differentiated into meaningful subscales that were internally consistent and evidenced significant stability over a one-year period.
To this aim, we administered the CRQ to three different samples: The overall purpose of the present study was to determine whether a number of the psychometric properties that Barber et al.
Hence, the specific objective of the present study was fourfold. The first aim of the study was to test the internal consistency of each subscale of the Swedish CRQ version as well as the pattern of intersubscale correlations.
On the basis of findings from the original version of the CRQ, 17 we expected that positively toned CRQ subscales would be positively correlated with each other, negatively toned subscales would be positively correlated with each other, and positively toned subscales would be inversely correlated with negatively toned subscales.
The second aim was to test the convergent and divergent validity of the Swedish CRQ version by examining its relationship to a measure of interpersonal problems. Consistent with the procedure employed with the original version of the CRQ, 17 correlations were examined between the CRQ and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems IIP19 which measures the presence and severity of various types of interpersonal problems specifically, problems with being domineering, vindictive, cold, socially avoidant, nonassertive, exploitable, overly nurturant, and intrusive.
We hypothesized that the positively toned CRQ subscales would correlate negatively with the overall number of interpersonal problems, while the negatively toned CRQ subscales would correlate positively with the overall number of interpersonal problems.
Barber and his colleagues restricted their group comparison to a limited set of CRQ subscales; the present study expands this comparison.
We predicted that students would have higher mean scores on positively toned CRQ subscales, whereas patients would have higher mean scores on the negatively toned subscales.
There is one exception to this global prediction. One of the negatively toned CRQ subscales assesses dominance, yet clinical experience seems to indicate that patients, who are often lacking in self-esteem, have problems of submissiveness.
Consequently, patients are expected to evidence less dominance than students. In the present study, discriminant validity will be tested by comparing the Swedish outpatients with the Swedish students nonpatients.
The fourth purpose of the study was to perform an exploratory cross-cultural comparison by examining the CRQ responses of the Swedish and North American student samples. We wanted to examine whether some of the cultural stereotypes of the two countries would be evident in the students' CRQ responses.
For example, North American culture values autonomy and achievement, whereas Swedish culture is more open about sexuality. Although it might be expected that students from each country would score higher on CRQ subscales that captured their countries' values, we preferred to consider the objective of this analysis exploratory rather than predictive given that cultural stereotypes were based on conjecture.
In addition, a gender comparison was also included in this analysis given that women and men were hypothesized to have different orientations to relationships see, for example, Gilligan A translation group consisting of 5 to 8 experienced researchers and clinicians then discussed each translated item and compared it with the original version in order to arrive at a satisfactory formulation in everyday Swedish.
In some cases, modifications had to be made in the original wording, following Brislin's 21 recommendations for cross-cultural modifications of research instruments. Once a preliminary translation of the CRQ had been agreed upon, it was administered to a few psychiatric inpatients by a research nurse, who discussed any problems and ambiguities in the formulation of the items with each patient after completion of the questionnaire.
Using the feedback from the patients, the translation group modified ambiguities in the text. This process was reiterated until a satisfactory final translation of all the CRQ items was agreed upon.
Only age categories were available for this sample: The mode age category was 30 or more years for the entire sample. One man and three women were homosexual. These participants were included in the analyses because there was no reason to believe that responses should differ in any systematic way on the basis of a person's sexual orientation.
Ethnicity is rarely coded in studies in Sweden unless the study specifically focuses on that issue; the overwhelming majority of the Swedish students were most likely white. The Swedish psychiatric outpatients were 30 patients 15 men and 15 women in group psychotherapy at a department specializing in the treatment of substance abuse.
Four men and one woman were homosexual, and these participants were included in the analyses under the same rationale cited above concerning the Swedish students.
All outpatients were white. The 98 North American participants were 49 heterosexual couples recruited from students and nonfaculty staff at an urban university campus as part of a larger study.
In order to determine whether the three samples differed by age, the age for each sample was coded into the three age categories that were available for the Swedish student sample: The Swedish outpatient sample was significantly older than the Swedish student sample. Because of these significant age differences, we used age as a covariate when comparing these groups. Each item is rated on a 7-point scale ranging from 1 never true or typical of me to 7 always true or typical of me.
Thus, higher scores represent a higher presence of a particular Wish, Response from Other, or Response of Self.
In the couple sample described above, Foltz and Barber unpublished manuscript, found that the actual similarity between partners' central relationship patterns, defined as the correlation between the two partners' self-descriptions at the level of the individual subscales of the CRQ, was small.
More specifically, the average correlations between the partners were 0. These results suggest that the potential intercorrelation between the CRQ scores of the partners is minimal and is not likely to affect the present results. The IIP consists of items describing perceived interpersonal difficulties.
For each item, participants are asked to rate how distressed they feel on a 5-point scale, ranging from 0 not at all to 4 extremely. The circumplex model of interpersonal behavior 23 — 26 conceptualizes personality traits as arranged in a circular fashion in a two-dimensional space defined by the orthogonal dimensions of affiliation warm—cold and control dominance—submissiveness.
Using this model, Alden et al. Each scale describes a different type of interpersonal problem—specifically, problems of being domineering, vindictive, cold, socially avoidant, nonassertive, exploitable, overly nurturant, or intrusive. The Swedish version of the IIP 28 has been shown to have acceptable internal consistency, to have construct validity for its circumplex properties, and to show meaningful patterns of correspondence with self-report and interview-based instruments developed within other theoretical frameworks for assessing personality characteristics.
In the present study, the item circumplex version was used. The Swedish students completed the questionnaires on a voluntary basis after a psychology lecture.
The Swedish outpatients completed the questionnaires as part of their semiannual evaluation. The North American students were recruited via advertisements posted on a large university campus to participate in a study examining interpersonal relationships.
Only the North American students were paid for their participation in the study. The CRQ was given to all three samples.
The Swedish students also completed the IIP. The indices of internal consistency for the Swedish student sample as well as the means and standard deviations for all three samples are presented in Table 1. Cronbach's alpha coefficient ranged from 0. Internal consistency was acceptable for 17 of the 22 subscales, with alphas above 0.
Alphas were slightly below 0. In the Swedish student sample, item—total correlations ranged from 0. For the RO items, item—total correlations ranged from 0. Finally, for the RS items, the item—total correlations ranged from 0. There were two items with item—total correlations at or below 0.
Intersubscale Correlations Pearson correlations were computed between the CRQ subscales in order to examine whether the pattern of intercorrelations was similar to that obtained with the original version of the CRQ.
All of the subscales correlated in the predicted directions. That is, positively toned subscales correlated positively with other positively toned subscales and inversely with negatively toned subscales, whereas negatively toned subscales correlated positively with other negatively toned subscales.
The RS subscale Am Domineering, which consists of only two items, generally showed very low correlations with the other RS subscales.
Overall, the pattern of intersubscale correlations appears similar to that reported for the original version of the CRQ 17 with the exception of intersubscale correlations involving the RS subscale Avoid Conflict. In addition, the average absolute difference in the magnitude of the correlations across the two samples was 0.
The negatively toned ROs seemed to be more strongly intercorrelated in the Swedish student sample. However, most of the discrepancy between the two studies seemed to stem from the RS subscale Avoid Conflict: Furthermore, the root mean square residual calculated from the differences between the corresponding correlations from the Swedish student sample and the sample reported in Barber et al.
The root mean square residual dropped to 0. Although the root mean square residual is larger than the criterion used to judge the goodness of fit between two correlation matrices root mean square residual less than 0. Thus, with the exception of the RS Avoid Conflict, it appears overall that the intersubscale correlations for the Swedish and the original versions of the CRQ are not notably different.
Convergent and Divergent Validity The average IIP score, which can be conceived as a general measure of interpersonal distress, correlated in the predicted direction with all the CRQ subscales; that is, positively toned CRQ subscales were inversely correlated with the number of interpersonal problems, whereas the negatively toned CRQ subscales correlated in a positive fashion with the overall level of interpersonal problems Table 3.
The average absolute difference in the magnitude of the corresponding correlations across the two studies was 0. Of the 24 instances where the sign of the corresponding correlation was in the opposite direction, 18 involved Wish subscales.
Finally, the root mean square residual calculated from the differences between the corresponding correlations from the Swedish student sample and sample reported in Barber et al. Again, while the root mean square residual is larger than the criterion used to judge the goodness of fit between two correlation matrices less than 0.
Comparison Between Swedish Studentsand Swedish Outpatients In order to address the issue of discriminant validity, we used mixed-models analysis of variance 31 a more general version of general linear models to test the prediction that Swedish outpatients, relative to Swedish students, would endorse significantly higher levels of the negatively toned CRQ subscales and significantly lower levels of the positively toned CRQ subscales and the RS Am Domineering.
Because scores on the dependent variables might differ by participants' gender and age, these factors were incorporated into the model. A mixed-models analysis of variance was conducted on the CRQ subscales, adjusting for unequal group variances with Group Swedish outpatients versus Swedish students and Gender serving as independent variables, and Age entered as a covariate.
The presentation of the results of the mixed-models analysis of variance focused on the Group by CRQ Subscale interaction, the Gender by CRQ Subscale interaction, and the three-way interaction between Group, Gender, and CRQ Subscale, although all main effects and the remaining interactions were included in the model in order to adjust for their effects. The Wish, RO, and RS subscales were analyzed separately, given that they were conceived as three distinct components of central relationship patterns.
Nevertheless it is worth noting, although not statistically significant, that Swedish outpatients generally endorsed higher levels of the negatively toned Wish subscales and lower levels of the positively toned Wish subscales than the Swedish students, as predicted see Table 1.
With the exception of the subscale Is Independent, Swedish outpatients tended to endorse, albeit not significantly so, higher levels of the negatively toned RO subscales and lower levels of the remaining positively toned RO subscales than the Swedish students, as predicted. In the remaining nonsignificant comparisons, Swedish outpatients scored lower than Swedish students on the RS subscales Care for Other, Am Independent, and Am Domineering, as predicted.
Comparison Between Swedishand North American Student Samples In order to explore cross-cultural differences, we conducted a mixed-model analysis of variance to test for differences between the Swedish and North American student samples' CRQ responses. As in the previous analysis of the two Swedish samples, a series of three mixed-models analyses of variance was conducted on the CRQ subscales again, separate analyses for Wish, RO, and RS subscaleswith Country and Gender serving as independent variables, Age included as a covariate, and adjusting for unequal variances across groups.
The results indicate that the subscales of the Swedish CRQ version possessed acceptable internal consistency. The intercorrelations among the CRQ subscales were in the predicted direction and were similar to those reported for the English version of the CRQ.
In addition, meaningful differences were found between the Swedish students and Swedish outpatients, also providing initial evidence of the CRQ's divergent validity. An exploratory analysis comparing the CRQ responses of Swedish students with those of North American students suggested some interesting cultural differences as well as some gender differences.
The internal consistencies of the CRQ subscales in the Swedish student sample were acceptable, at 0. The alpha coefficients for the CRQ subscales of the Swedish version were similar to, although slightly lower than, those originally reported by Barber et al.
In addition, unlike Barber et al. Item—total correlations also supported the internal consistency of the CRQ subscales, although these correlations did suggest that a few items did not fare so well in the Swedish version. Future study is needed to determine whether these items were translated properly and whether the same subscales are less internally consistent in other Swedish samples.
In the absence of specific pressures toward change, attachment patterns are thought to persist over the life span and guide expectations and beliefs regarding past, present, and future interactions in relationships. They also are thought to influence how individuals attend to, interpret, and remember interpersonal events and to trigger both affective and behavioral responses to new interpersonal situations and relationships.
The AAI George et al. The interview poses a series of questions probing how the individual thinks about his or her childhood relationships with parents or central attachment figures; however, this interview takes approximately 1 hr to conduct and requires costly transcribing and time-consuming coding, which renders it less useful as a widely used assessment for mothers at risk.
In a parallel series of developments in the field of social psychology, researchers applied Bowlby's theory of attachment to the romantic relationships between adults. Hazan and Shaver asked a sample of college students to pick one of three paragraphs that best represented how they viewed their own relationship experiences. The three paragraphs were conceptually linked to the original childhood attachment patterns: Attachment security was defined as a positive self-image and a sense of being worthy of love, combined with a positive expectation that others will be generally accepting and responsive in times of need.
Preoccupation anxious-ambivalence was defined as a negative self-image and a sense of unlovability, combined with a positive evaluation of others in terms of their strength and independence. Two avoidant strategies were defined: Subsequently, numerous researchers in the social psychology tradition argued for the advantage of using dimensional analysis rather than prototype measures when assessing adult attachment.
Note that self-reported attachment styles represent conscious and explicit relational attitudes and, in this way, differ from attachment patterns as assessed by the AAI. The more complex AAI relies on the coder's judgment of the coherence of the discourse during the interview to establish an attachment classification rather than requiring or assuming that attachment attitudes are conscious and can be accurately reported.
In addition to assessing explicit relational attitudes, self-report attachment measures such as the RQ have been developed primarily on low-risk, nonclinical student samples. Based on phrases used by some high-risk parents on the AAI, an additional paragraph was added describing what was labeled a profoundly-distrustful attachment orientation.
In the current study, relational attitudes were assessed among a cohort of low-income mothers who had been followed from the first year of the infant's life to child age 20 years.
Fourth, we hypothesized that mothers' profoundly-distrustful attachment style would be positively associated with clinically assessed risk for infant maltreatment 20 years earlier Hypothesis 4. Participants The participants were 44 low-income mothers who had participated in a previous study of the impact of family risk factors on infant development Lyons-Ruth et al.
The participating follow-up sample did not differ from the group lost to follow-up on any of the study variables. Risk factors characterizing the study sample in infancy included the following: Demographic risk A cumulative demographic risk score was computed by summing the presence of the following five variables collected at the time of the infant study: Maternal behavior was coded in ten 4-min intervals.
Coders were blind to all other data on the families. In the Strange Situation procedure, the infant is observed in a playroom during a series of eight 3-min episodes in which the mother leaves and rejoins the infant twice. Fifteen randomly selected tapes were coded by two coders to assess reliability. The remaining 20 mothers had no documented mal-treatment or referral at the time of the infant study. The original RQ consists of four paragraphs, each describing an attitude toward relationships in general.
Security is characterized by the following description: I am comfortable depending on others and having others depend on me. I don't worry about being alone or having others not accept me.